Biological, organic, mineral
by pulp and paper mills have been treated as a waste disposal problem. However, there has been considerable interest in their use as soil amendments. The moderate nutrient levels, high organic matter contents and low levels of potentially deleterious compounds associated with the sludges make them good candidates for land application.
The Secretariat of the United Nations CCD,
Convention to Combat Desertification,
serious ongoing desertification has been studied for years in various parts of the world, also in Europe, Africa and the Near and Middle East.
The process of desertification could be slowed down considerably by using B.O.M. as soil conditioner. Spreading B.O.M. in combination with (for example) special grass seeds would lead to grass-
B.O.M.® is a process to treat organic / mineral sludges deriving from the production of pulp and paper / and or residues from water purification plants (according to acceptable analysis) The wet waste from these plants is a mixture of organic and mineral substances.
The paper/pulp sludges consist mainly of fine to finest organic fibres, but low in N, P, and K elements. These missing elements can be added by using sludges from municipal purification plants or slurry / excrements from animals (pigs, poultry, and cows)
Intensive irrigation of land, especially in warm or hot counties and, using extensively artificial fertilizer like UREA will turn the soil salty within a period of 2 to 3 years. That means, that the soil is some-
Especially rural areas with more or less intensive irrigation need the consecutive use of the organic substances in the soil to attract bacteria which turn the organic-
substances into vegetable mo(u)ld – humus. The vegetable mo(u)ld prevents the soil
turning salty. The organic part of B.O.M. consists mainly of fibres which react like a sponge in contact with water, and slow evaporation, holding back water for some time. Preserving the moisture is an "irrigation" advantage.This effect is in comparison to UREA a great advantage.
Paper sludge production reaches alone in Germany about 1.5 million mts and Municipal Sewage sludges about 6 million mts. per year. Some parts of the Municipal sewage sludge are used already as soil conditioner in Germany. Unfortunately, the greater part of these wastes is fully destinated to landfill or incineration instead of using them as an organic fertiliser to improve crops to meet extensive nutrition-